A încercat cineva ABA/VB sau VBA?

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Considerati utilizarea ABA/VB sau VBA în tratarea autismului?

Nu stiu ce sunt ABA/VB sau VBA.
3
19%
Am auzit despre ABA/VB si/sau VBA si intentionez sa le folosesc.
13
81%
Stiu ce sunt ABA/VB si/sau VBA dar nu doresc sa le folosesc.
0
No votes
 
Total votes : 16

Postby marius_filip » Sat Nov 15, 2008 11:53 pm

Despre materialele VBA pe care le pregătim:

http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com/2008/11 ... ckage.html
Eusebiu, aproape 5 ani, TSA, face ABA acasă şi va face VBA
Altfel, nu mult mai mult decât http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com
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Verbal Behavior Approach de Barbera - impresii dupa lectura

Postby dianamaria » Sun Nov 16, 2008 11:00 am

Verbal Behavior Approach de Mary Barbera

Idei noi in perspectiva VB care mi se par binevenite:
- corelatia intre imbunatatirea limbajului si reducerea problemelor de comportament (de fapt problemele de comportament "comunica" atunci cind nu este antrenata o modalitate normala de comunicare);
- cooperarea copilului ca obiectiv: tehnicile de asociere a tutorelui cu recompensa, introducerea graduala a ITT (invatarea intensiva - similara cu programul la masa in ABA);
- "mand" ca si concept important si punct de pornire pentru verbalizare;
- accentul pe expresiv comparativ cu receptiv, pe comunicare comparativ cu cognitia;
- tehnicile de predare pentru operantii intraverbali (echivalentul WhQuestions din ABA).

Totodata, cred ca perspectiva VB nu este potrivita pentru toti copii, indiferent de stadiu. In cazul nostru, cu terapia inceputa tirziu, ne-a folosit foarte mult in perioada de inceput discriminarea din manualul Lovaas si "programele cu un singur obiectiv" din ABA.
Probabil dupa o oarecare perioada de ABA (tact-urile si mand-urile au aparut la noi dupa sase luni de ABA) ne-ar fi prins foarte bine sa aplicam ABA/VB.

Cartea este excelenta, scrisa in limbaj accesibil si cu multe exemple de practica. Ar fi foarte folositoare atit pentru parinti cit si pentru tutori daca ar fi tradusa.
Mihai-Razvan, 2001, terapia ABA din 2006
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Postby marius_filip » Sun Nov 16, 2008 11:27 am

VBA diferă de ABA/VB prin faptul că bună parte din partea cognitivă (aproape tot ce-i în manualul lui Lovaas) este inclus în stadiul de pre-listener din VBA. Lipsesc doar lucrurile care nu au legătură directă cu limbajul (modelare ITP, potty training, food acceptance training, şamd).
Eusebiu, aproape 5 ani, TSA, face ABA acasă şi va face VBA
Altfel, nu mult mai mult decât http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com
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Postby marius_filip » Fri Nov 21, 2008 5:45 pm

Am încărcat pachetul nostru VBA pe internet.

Găsiţi legăturile la

http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com/2008/11 ... ge-iv.html

Orice feedback este mai mult decât binevenit.
Eusebiu, aproape 5 ani, TSA, face ABA acasă şi va face VBA
Altfel, nu mult mai mult decât http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com
marius_filip
 
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Location: Bucharest, ROMANIA

vb

Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 1:02 pm

Am vazut ca sunt parinti care ar vrea informatii despre vb. De cateva luni tot strang astfel de informatii, am cumparat cart, un dvd...
As vrea sa le pun si aici, dar nu stiu eact unde.
Am mai multe adrese de unde puteti citi informatii cu referire la vb, dar... in engleza.
Eu am tradus cateva aspecte, dar, repet... nu stau f bine cu engleza.
O sa incerc sa le pun aici, asezati-le voi daca credeti altundeva...
bi
 
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intrebari

Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 1:05 pm

TEACHING YOUR CHILD TO ASK QUESTIONS
TEACHING WHAT
The teacher will bring in a paper bag with things ANDREW likes inside the bag (i.e. little toys, gummies, books).The teacher will look in the bag and say “WOW, look at this” while keeping the bag closed.
Prompt ANDREW to say "what is it?" or "what is in there?".
Teacher then removes item from the bag and says it is a book and delivers the book to the child.
Teacher presents a field of three or more cards and objects both mastered and target items.
Present cards and say "tell me what is on the table",
Prompt “What is it?” when the child comes to unknown item.
Teacher will tact item and give reinforcement.
Teacher says "I have a surprise for you".
Prompt "What?”, “What is it?" or "what do you have?".
Tell the child what it is while you deliver item.
Teacher says "I want to play".
Prompt "what do you want to play?”
Teacher says " reinforcing game or toy"
TEACHING WHERE
Present ANDREW with a closed box with that has a reinforcer (candy works best) in it and say "this is for you".
Present the box two times with the reinforcer in it. On the third time the box will be empty.
Prompt “Where?” or "Where is my candy?”
Deliver the reinforcer while saying “Oh, here it is”
While doing an activity the teacher will abruptly end the activity with no warning and say "come on".
The teacher should prompt "Where are we going?". The teacher will then say to play on the computer or any item that is more reinforcing then the item they are leaving .
The teacher should say "get the ____" or "give me the ______", requiring the child to find an item necessary for a reinforcing task (e.g. "go get your shoes so we can go outside")
The necessary item will not be available or missing from its normal place. Prompt ANDREW to say “Where are my shoes?". The teacher should then say it is on the table, in the drawer, in my pocket, etc
Have ANDREW come to sit, but have no chair for him.
Prompt "Where is my chair?"
Have ANDREW sitting and suddenly get up and say "I'll be right back".
Prompt "Where are you going?"
Teacher should say “to get a gummy (or other reinforcing item) for you”.
Teacher will deliver lunch with no utensils.
Prompt "Where is my spoon?" or "Where is my fork?"
Teacher will present crafts with one necessary item missing
i.e. glue and say "Okay put some glue on it".
Prompt "Where is the glue?"
Have ANDREW come to the table for preferred activity (e.g. Lego’s but have only one piece on the table).
Prompt "Where are the rest?".
TEACHING WHY
Teacher will put a chair on the table while ANDREW is engaged in another activity. Then tell the child “Let’s go sit down.”
When ANDREW returns to the table the teacher should Prompt "Why is the chair there?"
Teacher can answer with something like “I was cleaning the floor and look what I found under your chair” while handing the child a reinforcer.
Teacher says "I am going outside to play".
Prompt "Why can't I go?"
Teacher should say "You can, follow me!”
At mealtime the teacher should put a NON-food item on ANDREW’s plate
and give the plate the to the child.
Prompt ANDREW to say "Why did you do that?"
Teacher should act as if they got it mixed up and present ANDREW with the correct plate.
ANDREW is doing a reinforcing activity e.g. watching TV and teacher turns it off with no warning.
Prompt "Why did you do that?" or "Why did you turn it off?"
Teacher should say, “So we can go to the playground”.
(Remember the teacher must pick an activity that is MORE reinforcing to ANDREW then what he was just doing)
Change things in the house (hang Pooh from the fan)
and prompt “Why is pooh there?”
TEACHING HOW
Teacher will have see through jar of desired items and the child will mand for the items.
After manding, the teacher should acknowledge the mand by saying
"Oh, sure you can have it” and at same time hand the tightly closed jar to the child.
The teacher will prompt "How do I open the jar?" or "How do I open this?". The teacher will then show the child how to open the jar.
Teacher will say “Lets go outside and play” and take child to a locked door and say “Okay ANDREW open the door, lets go".
The teacher will prompt "How do I open the door?" when you see the child seems puzzled as to how to open the door.
Teacher will say "oh, like this” while using a key.
Teacher will present ANDREW with task e.g. (Lego’s , train set
Wooden log builders) and say “Let’s make a bulldozer.”
Prompt "How do I build a bulldozer?" or “How do I built that?”.
Teacher will respond "Oh here, let me show you".
(Remember to always select an activity that can not be done by the child and an activity the child would want to participate in completion of)
Play with a toy that the child cannot operate by themselves. Make the toy do something (such a play music).
Prompt the child to ask “How did you do that?”
TEACHING WHICH
Teacher will set up a situation where two similar reinforcers are on the table and say "Give me a gummy” (one is red and one is blue)
Prompt "Which gummy?"
Teacher says “the red one”.
The student should hand the red one to the teacher and the teacher should give other item to the child.
Teacher should put a reinforcer in their hand and switch it back and forth, hiding the location.
With hands extended out prompt "Which hand?".
Say “This one” and deliver reinforcer from hand to child.
Teacher will put out 3 containers that are the same and move then around with a reinforcing item under them (like the shell game).
Tell the child “you can have the cookie.”
Prompt the child to ask “Which one is it under?”
Teacher should offer the child 2 cookies and say “You can only have one”.
Prompt Which one can I have?
TEACHING WHO
Have three people in the room and say "Someone has a gummy for you" (or other desired item).
Prompt "Who?” or "Who does?"
Then give the name of the person and child walks to person and gets reinforcer.
Teacher presents pictures of known people e.g. mom, dad, grandparents and unknown professionals.
The teacher holds up one picture and says Who is it? (only ask who is it? one time when starting the game).
When an unknown person is held up,
Prompt "Who is that?" and tell the child who it is.
Using toys that are reinforcing to ANDREW the teacher will hide a toy character (Buzz Light-year) behind a barrier and say "Guess who is behind here".
Prompt "who?".
Show the item and say it is Buzz Light-Year and let the child have it.
TEACHING WHEN
Place highly desired item on the table when the child mands for it, the teacher should say "Not right now" and prompt "When can I have it?".
Teacher says "After you …………..".
Child does the activity and then gets the item
Give a peer a desired reinforcer and prompt "When can I have it?" or "When is it my turn?".
The teacher should say "After ANDREW is done with it".
Prompt peer to put it down (Reinforce peer for doing so) and teacher tells child "Now you can have it"
Help Introduce Conversation
Turn on one of your child’s videos and have the remote in hand to pause. Play the video for a while and then pause, “What is Barney doing?” give the answer “Barney is dancing.” Or just “dancing.” Push play for a couple of moments then pause again, “What is Barney doing?” if no answer give the answer or the “Du” for dancing. Continue this back and forth “conversing”. The first couple of times that I did it with my son it only lasted a couple of pauses and then he got agitated that I was stopping his video. After a couple of weeks of this he started to look forward to our conversations about Barney. We then tried it outside talking about cars, the wind, clouds, etc. We now can talk about his toys and favorite things to do. Don’t get me wrong, this is not normal conversation. He can’t just go up to people and ask “How are you doing?” “What do you think of the Cowboy’s game?” but I never dreamed that we could get this in just a couple of months!! I know many kids are not ready for this because they cannot speak or do not have echo skills but start with sign language. Over time add in the words along with the signs and then fade the signs. This is a lot harder than it sounds but so is Autism.
Here is an explanation of Applied Verbal Behavior taken from www.ChristinaBurkABA.com
bi
 
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Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 1:05 pm

vreau sa mentionez ca adresa din ultimul rand e o sursa f mare de informatii despre vb. Eu de acolo am inceput cautarile...
bi
 
Posts: 161
Joined: Tue Nov 01, 2005 12:04 pm

Postby zenobia » Thu Nov 27, 2008 1:45 pm

bi, pune aici toate linkurile pe care le ai, chiar daca sunt in engleza!
zenobia
 
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robert

Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 9:55 pm

The Seven Steps to Earning Instructional Control with your Child
By Robert Schramm, MA, BCBA
Parents working to help their children overcome the effects of autism face many challenges on a daily basis.
As a consultant working with the sciences of Applied Behavior Analysis and Verbal Behavior I seldom get
through a day where I am not asked a question that entails the phrase “How can I get my child to
______?” That question typically ends with “stay seated during meals”, “not run into the street”, “use the
toilet,” or any one of a thousand different things that children with autism might not choose to do when
asked. The problem with these questions is that they are all symptoms of the same problem. Brainstorming
ideas to affect one of these symptoms only provides a patch until the next symptom arises. The root
problem for all of these questions is that the family has not effectively earned their child’s instructional
control. Until they do, life will always be about trying to put out one fire after the other and hoping to get
some teaching in amongst the flames.
Earning Instructional control is the most important aspect of any autism intervention or learning
relationship. Without it you are powerless to consistently help guide your child. Void of your guidance
your child’s skill acquisition is reliant on his interests. Unless you are able to help your child to overcome
his own desires and participate in your learning activities you will not be able to help him in meaningful
ways. Instructional control can be thought of as nothing more than a positive working relationship.
Depending on your choice of interventions you might have heard instructional control described in terms
such as, compliance training, developing a master/apprentice relationship, or earning your child’s respect.
Regardless of what type of intervention you use with your child, you are not going to be able to teach your
child everything you want him to learn if you do not earn his willingness to follow your lead.
Depending on whose version of the approach to intervention you are studying you likely have been given
some ideas about how to gain instructional control with your child. It usually involves pairing yourself
with reinforcement and slowly adding simple instructions to the play. These instructions are usually for
things that your child is likely to already want to do. Since he wants to follow these directions you can
easily reinforce this direction following with more fun and reinforcing items. Over time you begin to
increase the amount and difficulty of the instructions as your child becomes more willing to work for the
reinforcing items and activities you are offering. For some children this is all that it takes to begin to
develop a good working relationship. However for the vast majority of children with autism this technique
is grossly insufficient to help them overcome the allure of their current, “I say It, Mom and Dad does it”
lifestyle.
To better help our families develop a lasting relationship of instructional control, I began to pioneer my
own guidelines based on the methods we used to resolve the problems families were still having due to the
weaknesses of normal instructional control procedures. These guidelines eventually became a series of seven
steps that allow parents to enlist the environment as an ally in their battle against autism.
Once you have systematically applied these seven steps your child’s environment, you will no longer need
to actively control your child. Your child’s natural desires will become his motivation to participate in joint
activities, follow instructions and share in the responsibility of maintaining social interactions. He will
begin making the choice to actively engage in increasingly more difficult tasks because you have earned his
desire to maintain your interaction. It is only when your child is making the independent choice to
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formerly willing to learn.
The seven steps work because they act as a barrier, blocking off your child’s access to unearned
reinforcement. This leaves items and activities that act as reinforcement available for you to apply them to
the behaviors you actually want to increase. However, the failure to adhere to even one of the following
seven steps can upset the entire balance and your child will likely be able to find a way to avoid the benefits
of your teaching.
1. Show your child that you are the one in control of the items he wants to hold or play with and that
you will decide when he can have them.

  

   
 

 
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behavior choices. Your control over these items is essential in the early stages of earning instructional
control. Your child should not be deprived of prized objects. Rather, he should be expected to earn time
with them by following simple instructions and behaving appropriately.
The best way to use control of your child’s reinforcement to teach is to begin deciding what items your
child can have in his environment and what he can do to cause you to introduce or remove them. To
restrict reinforcement, begin by removing preferred items from your child’s room and the remainder of the
house. Put these objects in a place where they can be seen but not accessed by your child. At the very least,
make sure that your child knows where they are now being kept. A clear container should suffice for
younger children. A locked room or a locked cabinet in the child’s room may be needed for older children.
Restriction of reinforcement becomes more important once you begin working with your child. Whenever
you see him put down a reinforcing item you must immediately put it away. If he walks over and begins to
play with, hold, or look at something that you haven’t thought to restrict, take note of that item and when
he is finished remove it from the environment. This way you can reintroduce it as a possible reinforcer. If
your child has favorite activities, consider ways that you can control these as well. Mini-trampolines can be
hung against the wall, window shades can be closed and swings can be lifted up and out of reach when not
in use.
2. Show your child that you are fun. Make each interaction you have with him an enjoyable experience
so that he will want to follow your directions to earn more time sharing experiences with you.

In the best ABA/VB Programs approximately 75% of every interaction you have with your child should be
reserved for the process of pairing yourself with fun activities and known reinforcement. Pairing activities
should be led by your child’s motivation and should include mostly non-verbal and declarative language.
You should practice sharing your thoughts and ideas with your child in silly and exciting ways without
requiring anything in return. What is he showing you about what he desires? To pair yourself with
reinforcement, follow your child around and when he shows interest in things play along with him. Make
 
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you      

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provide the music. In addition, you could hold him, bounce and dance with him while he is listening. It is
perfectly okay to turn off the music when he chooses to leave the area or begins to play or behave
inappropriately (step 1). However, it is important, especially in the early stages of instructional control, to
demonstrate that you will immediately turn it back on as soon as he returns or ceases the inappropriate
activity. You should always work to increase his level of enjoyment beyond what he would be capable of on
his own. Be careful not to take any fun out of the item. This is sometimes more difficult than you think. If
playing with your child is not something you are particularly good at you should practice. Good pairing is
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3. 􀀀
 

   





 



say your child should do something, don’t allow him access to reinforcement until it has been acceptably
completed. This includes prompting him to completion if necessary.


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your child will have no basis from which to make good decisions. During teaching time, do not reward
your child for avoiding learning by letting your instruction remain unfulfilled. When you present a
direction or instruction formally known as a discriminative stimulus or SD, you should expect your child
to choose to satisfy that request. Until he decides to make that choice you must not allow him to
experience any additional reinforcement. Not allowing other choices to be reinforced will make the choice
you are trying to teach in your child’s best interest. When positive learning behavior is in your child’s best
interest he will choose it sooner and more often.
Consider your choice of words carefully. If you ask your child a question, he should be allowed to answer it
and you must respect his decision even if it gets in the way of teaching. This mean you have to think about
the possible responses before you ask the question. For example, you have asked your child if he wants to
work with you and he answers “no.” Your child has not made an inappropriate response. In fact, you
offered your child an option to work or not to work. He has opted not to work. You must realize that it
was your decision to ask a question that caused the problem. You can avoid this by using specific language.
Say what you mean and mean what you say. Tell your child exactly what you want him to do by direct
instruction or SD. When you say to your child, “Sit down,” “Come to me,” or “Do this” you should
always expect your child to respond with an appropriate choice (this may need to be prompted). If you
have a ball that your child wants to play with and you tell him to sit down, you should not give him that
ball until he is seated. If he does not take his seat, withhold the ball until he makes a better choice.
Remember, you should only be giving instructions like these during 25% of the time you are not playing
and pairing yourself with reinforcement so the process of meaning what you say and saying what you mean
is not a constant burden on your child’s desires.
4. Show your child that following your directions is to his benefit and the best way for him to obtain
what he wants. Give your child easy directions as often as possible and then reinforce his decisions to
participate by following them with good experiences.

 􀀀 􀀀􀀀 􀀀
 ol over your child’s reinforcers you can begin using them to support his
appropriate behavior choices. To follow this step appropriately you need to be aware of Premack’s
Principle. In the case of teaching your child this principle means that he must follow a direction and/or
demonstrate an appropriate behavior, before you allow him to have something he wants. The best way to
ensure that your child adheres to this principle is to make a request or issue an instruction to your child
before giving him anything that he might want from you. Your direction can be anything related or useful
such as asking that he, “Throw that in the garbage” or “Sit down and I’ll get it for you.” It could also be to
ask for a simple motor imitation first as a way to develop a teaching give and take. The more opportunities
your child is reinforced with something he wants after first following a direction or demonstrating an
appropriate behavior, the quicker he will learn that following rules and directions is the best way to get to
what he desires.
4
Resist the temptation to ask your child if he wants something before you give him a requirement to meet in
order to get it. You also want to stay away from “If ____, then _____” statements such as “If you put
away your Legos I will give you some Ice Cream.” These statements are shortcuts to getting what you want
from your child but they are fraught with limitations and potential problems. It is always better to surprise
your child with an item or action of your informed choosing after he has made a positive choice. The use
of “If, then” statements does not translate into better choice making for your child. Instead it invites him
to begin negotiating with you.
To quickly get through the early phases of earning instructional control, provide your child with hundreds
of opportunities a day to make an appropriate choice based on a direction. Then you need to immediately
reinforce this positive choice. Once you have taken control over his reinforcement, providing him with
opportunities to follow directions will be easy. Since you have access to his favorite items under your
control your child must come to you to obtain what he wants. When he does, you only need to ask him to
do something first.
􀀀
5. In the early stages of earning instructional control with your child reinforce after each positive
response moving to an ever increasing variable ratio of reinforcement.􀀀
􀀀
Consistency is important because your child must understand that certain behavior choices result in his
coming in contact with something he values. This understanding of good choices leading to good things
mirrors the realities of all of our lives and will only occur if in the beginning every good choice is met with
a positive result. Because many of these choices are based on the SD’s (instructions) you have given him, he
will begin to see following these instructions as a necessary component to gaining good things as well. The
connection of instructions, leading to good choice making, leading to reinforcement is not lost on a child
who is very good at getting what he wants. As your child learns that it is in his best interest to attend to
your directions and give good responses he will start to apply the necessary effort to focusing on what you
want from him. Ultimately, he will begin to come to you looking for an SD (instruction) because he knows
this is the first step to getting to his favorite things. This awareness of the importance of others is one of the
first steps toward autism recovery and will only begin to occur if you consistently make following
directions the best and fastest way that your child can meet with reinforcement. That means reinforce every
single correct response.
In the beginning don’t let a good response of any kind pass without meeting some form of reinforcement.
There is always some form of reinforcement available to you perhaps a tickle, a swing in the air, or a long
loving deep pressure hug. Later when your child is willing and able to follow your directions consistently
you can begin to thin out the ratio of reinforcement. In the beginning, every time you reinforce a behavior
you are making a statement that this is a behavior you want to see again in similar circumstances. Once
your child understands this, he will also recognize that when you do not reinforce a behavior it is because
you would not like to see that behavior again.
Once earned, instructional control can be maintained by slowly thinning out the amount of reinforcement
through an increase in the response – reinforcement ratio. As your child’s willingness to participate in
learning improves move from a reinforcement ratio of one to a variable ratio (VR) of two or three. This
means that on the average you will follow every two to three responses with tangible reinforcement. Next,
you can move to a VR-5 and eventually a variable ratio of ten or more. The reason we use a variable ratio
schedule of reinforcement is due to scientific study that has demonstrated it more effective in evoking
consistent and strong responding than set schedules.
5
6. Demonstrate that you know your child’s priorities as well as your own.
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Track and record each of your child’s favorite reinforcing items and activities. Then observe which he
prefers in different situations. Make a list of his current reinforcers and share this list with all the adults
who regularly interact with your child. Everyday you should try to find or develop a new reinforcer or two.
Your child needs to be able to work for a wide variety of reinforcement. Always rotate reinforcers to keep
from diluting the reinforcing value of any one item. It is also a good idea to save your child’s most valued
items and activities to be used as reinforcers for difficult or important skills such as language acquisition or
toilet training.
In addition to knowing what your child wants you must also remain aware of your priorities. What is the
most important thing for you to be teaching your child? Normally, when you work with your child you
will have several different goals in mind at any one time. When this is the case, it is possible that a single
behavior choice your child makes may be appropriate for one goal you are trying to meet but inappropriate
for another. In these cases you need to know what target goals are your priorities. If your goal is to pair
with your child you might respond to a behavior differently than if you are trying to focus on instructional
control or skill acquisition. There is seldom only one correct way to respond to a behavior choice your
child makes. It is important to know what your priorities are at any given time and make reinforcement
choices based on these priorities.
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not
 
the acquisition of reinforcement.


 
 
difficult step to perform correctly and having a good Behavioral Consultant
(preferably someone who is Board Certified) available to offer you guidance is recommended.
Never allow your child to meet with reinforcement when he hasn’t followed a direction or engages in an
inappropriate behavior. You must consistently recognize when your child is behaving inappropriately and
intentionally make that behavior unsuccessful. You do this simply by not 
  
 

 
do this is by applying a consequence called extinction. When your child decides to leave the teaching
setting, make sure he understands that his choice has no controlling effect on you. This can be best done
through declarative statements such as, “I guess we are done playing,” “Oh well,” or “Bye.” Non-Verbal
reactions are also beneficial and important. Gather your teaching and reinforcing materials and walk to
another part of the room. Divert your eye contact and/or turn your body away from your child. Continue
to play with the items either by yourself or with other siblings. Make sure that your child has no access to
your reinforcing objects and actions (or outside reinforcement) until he returns to finish the activity he left.
This encourages your child to make a conscious choice to follow your direction and return to participate in
joint learning activities. Letting your child go and waiting until he chooses to come back is a much farther
reaching option than trying to pull or hold him there against his will. Pulling your child to work increases
your child’s motivation to escape. For your teaching to be as productive as possible, he must decide that it
is in his best interest to learn from you. Do not force this decision. Instead, set up the environment so that
learning from you is your child’s most beneficial option and then give him the opportunity to realize it.
Even if in the first several days you feel like most of your time is spent waiting and not teaching, stay
strong. You are teaching. What your child is learning during this waiting period is more valuable than the
unmotivated work you would otherwise be doing. What he is learning to do is desire participation in your
teaching. By following these steps comprehensively you will find that your waiting time will begin to
quickly reduce and the level of motivated learning your child does will far surpass any you have achieved in
the past. In our work we have found that children who choose to rejoin the teaching process due to a
comprehensive application of the seven steps of instructional control are far less likely to leave it again.
6
When they do leave your teaching it will be for increasingly shorter periods of time. In many cases children
can become so motivated to be a part of learning with you that they begin initiating teaching settings. It is
only through this motivated learning that children are able to reach skill levels that were thought to be out
of reach in the past.
􀀀
The reason you use extinction as a tool of instructional control is that it is an extremely powerful way to
reduce problematic behavior. Steps one through six are designed to help increase frequency and quality of
your child’s positive behavior choices. When used correctly, these steps make life immediately easier for
you and your child. He is following directions and participating in positive interactions with you and
subsequently you are playfully giving him all of his favorite things. It is this part of instructional control
that we want to spend the most time in as it is usually filled with joy and laughter. Conversely, the benefits
of extinction procedures are not immediate. The results occur over time and exist in the absence of
reinforcement. However, this seventh step of instructional control must come into play whenever your
child makes a choice that you do not want to see again.
Extinction allows you to reduce problem behavior without the need for aversive punishment procedures.
You need to realize however that extinction always comes with a cost; the extinction burst. An extinction
burst is the period during which a behavior on extinction intensifies and/or increases before it will finally
decrease. The extinction burst will be composed of behavior more severe than the one you are trying to
extinguish. Initial periods of extinction burst may be long and difficult to endure The danger of extinction
is the consequences that come with giving in and reinforcing extinction burst behaviors. If your child’s
extinction burst behaviors are successful in gaining what he wants these behaviors will actually increase in
the future. So it is extremely important that when you choose extinction that you remain committed to
following through with it. This means not reinforcing your child until he has followed your original
instruction or chosen an appropriate replacement behavior to the one you want to reduce. However, even
with this possible danger of reinforcing the extinction burst, extinction remains the best way to reduce
inappropriate behavior choices and convince your child that following your instructions is the fastest and
easiest way to getting what he wants. It is only through overcoming each extinction burst with your child
that you will ever fully earn instructional control and develop a good working relationship with him.
Extinction bursts will quickly begin to decrease in duration and veracity as your child realizes that the
benefit of using these inappropriate behaviors no longer exists.
Using extinction to reduce problem behavior can be a powerful tool but used inconsistently it has the
potential to be as damaging as it is beneficial. When used correctly it can reduce extreme behavior choices
in a matter of days or weeks. However, if you are not fully prepared to ride out all extinction bursts along
the way, you will end up increasing the duration and severity of these behavior choices you are trying to
extinguish. It is for this reason that I strongly suggest that you learn how to apply this seventh step under
the guidance of a Board Certified Behavior Analyst whenever possible.
Unfortunately, avoiding extinction is not a worthwhile option. Parents, teachers, and therapists sometimes
avoid using extinction because of the fact that in the beginning stages extinction bursts can be severe and
disruptive. Extinction can be scary and difficult when you do not know how to most effectively perform
the procedure. If you allow yourself to avoid using extinction because you fear extinction burst behaviors
you will likely be able to avoid your child’s use of those behaviors in the short term. However, you will not
remove the extinction burst behaviors from your child’s repertoire. In fact, you will only be delaying their
use until you can no longer accept the growing severity of your child’s inappropriate behavior choices. Your
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child will not learn that extinction burst behaviors will not be effective until he has tried them enough
times without success.
In addition to the process of gaining instructional control with your child, incorporating these steps into
your family lifestyle will ensure that a positive working relationship is maintained. The more capable
parents and therapists become regarding these seven steps, the better and faster their children will begin to
choose positive learning behaviors on a regular basis. My experiences have also shown that each subsequent
person to earn instructional control with a child will help make the process quicker and easier for the next.
Thus, when you and your spouse can earn instructional control it will be easier for grandma and grandpa.
In turn, grandma and grandpa’s successes will make it even easier for your child’s school therapist and
teacher to earn instructional control with your child.
Teaching with video as a reinforcer is one of the best ways to begin earning instructional control with your
child because it naturally uses the seven steps of instructional control. Start by turning on one of your
child’s very favorite videos. Make sure that you have the remote control and can decide when and why the
video is played or paused (step 1). Next, play the video for your child and bounce him on your lap, or rub
his head or back while he watches making the experience more fun with you than without you (step 2).
Turn the video on pause and give your child a simple SD such as “give me five” (step 4). When he follows
the SD immediately, turn the video back on (step 5). If your child chooses not to respond to the SD
immediately turn the video off or stand in front of the TV to show that you mean what you say (step 3). If
your child begins to get up from his seat, cry, hit, or try any other inappropriate behavior you should not
turn that video back on for him (step 7) or allow him access to any outside reinforcement (step 1).
However, as soon as your child is quiet and chooses to follow your direction, with or without prompts
(step 3), you can turn it back on again (step 5). Then begin bouncing and massaging him again (step 2). If
your child is non-vocal, teaching him to use a sign language request for video is a great skill to use for
instructional control. If he talks, you might try simple motor imitation skills such as telling your child, “Do
this” while you are touching your head, tapping the ground, or clapping your hands. Applying these seven
steps of instructional control in this easy to control teaching setting that is usually highly motivating will
give you the practical experience you need to incorporate them throughout your child’s entire day.
Robert Schramm, Applied
Behavior Analysis or Verbal Behavior you can go to the websites www.autismusaba.de and
www.knospe-ABA.de
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carte robert

Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 10:00 pm

Robert Schramm is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA), with a Master’s degree in Special Education. He
is the lead behavior analyst for Knospe-ABA, Europe’s largest ABA/VB autism intervention institute. Knospe-
ABA uses the principles and procedures of behavior analysis espoused by the biggest names in ABA/VB to guide
the education of over 150 children worldwide.
More reviews and information about how to purchase a copy of “Educate Toward Recovery: Turning the Tables
on Autism” is now available at the following web address:
www.lulu.com/knospe-aba
bi
 
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adrese

Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 10:52 pm

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Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 10:58 pm

Frequently Asked
Questions Regarding
Verbal Behavior
By Mary Barbera, RN, MSN, BCBA
Our consultants for the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project found that there is a need for some basic information about Verbal Behavior programming. In a question and answer format our lead consultant will attempt to cover basic information for parents and professionals.
What is Verbal Behavior programming?
Verbal Behavior programming is guided by the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). In addition to using ABA principles, a Verbal Behavior (VB) practitioner also incorporates
B.F. Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior.
In 1957, B.F. Skinner published an important book titled Verbal Behavior. Skinner described language as a behavior and illustrated how language
could be taught using the principles of operant conditioning. He also expanded the definition
of verbal behavior to include any behavior mediated by a listener. A child using sign language
to make a request or having a tantrum because he didn’t get his way are both considered
Verbal Behavior according to Skinner’s analysis.
Dr. Jack Michael and his students, Mark Sundberg and James Partington, began to apply Skinner’s book with great success many years later.
What is the ABLLS and how does it relate to Verbal Behavior programming?
The ABLLS is an abbreviation for a book titled
Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills.
It was written by Drs. Mark Sundberg and James Partington and published in 1998. This book is an assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with autism or other developmental
disabilities. VB practitioners utilize the ABLLS to assess a child’s level in 25 different domains. A parent and/or a teacher who are very familiar with the child can complete this assessment.
The ABLLS can be completed every three to six months after the initial assessment, serving as an excellent tracking system of the child’s progress. Also in 1998, Drs. Sundberg and Partington published Teaching Language to Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, which gives an excellent overview of the VB terminology and techniques. These books, based on Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior, finally brought VB techniques into programs to educate children with autism.
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How does a Verbal Behavior model differ from a Lovaas or discrete trial model?
A traditional ABA model such as the one pioneered
by Dr. Ivaar Lovaas stresses compliance training, imitation skills, and building receptive language for young, non-vocal early learners. The VB model, on the other hand, looks first at what the child wants and then teaches the child how to request (in VB terms, how to mand). Initially that may involve only the child reaching for the item to indicate interest. The child quickly learns that if he uses “verbal behavior” or reaching in this case, to indicate interest in something, he gets the item. Many VB consultants also recommend
the use of sign language for most nonvocal
early learners while Lovaas consultants rarely recommend signing as a first step. In VB programs, early skills, such as manding, are usually
taught away from a table and in the natural environment. Both Lovaas and VB programs are based on the principles of ABA so there are many similarities as well as a few key differences.
I keep hearing VB terms like manding,
tacting, and intraverbals. My child can say 10 words, how does that relate to the VB model?
While most traditional speech therapists and ABA practitioners break language into receptive and expressive categories, B.F. Skinner, and later Drs. Sundberg and Partington, broke language down even further. Drs. Sundberg and Partington realized that children with severe language impairments did not follow the normal developmental
sequence for acquiring language. Furthermore, they realized that many children with autism had very scattered skills. One child with autism may be able to verbally label (in VB terms, tact) 100 items. That same child, who may be able to say “cookie” when presented with a picture of a cookie, could not ask for (or mand) for cookie when she wanted one. That child could also not say the word cookie or even point to a cookie if you said, “you eat a _______”. This fill-in-the-blank is an intraverbal in VB terminology.
The child could also not say “cookie” if you said, “say cookie.” So her verbal imitation skills were also very poor. This child’s profile could be exactly opposite from the next child’s ABLLS.
Getting back to your child who says ten words, utilizing the VB model and the ABLLS, you would have to describe how your child uses the ten words. Can the child use one-word requests? Does he or she use single words to say the name of common objects? Can the child complete fill-in-the blanks or imitate saying words or phrases? These are all-important skill differences
and need to be assessed and programmed for differently.
How can I learn more about Verbal Behavior programming?
Drs. Mark Sundberg and James Partington reside in California but do make presentations on the East Coast a few times per year. If you have the opportunity, we recommend attending a Sundberg or Partington workshop. We also recommend
training workshops with Dr. Vincent Carbone and his associates (see drcarbone.net). Dr. Carbone utilizes the ABLLS and is a great VB presenter. Parents of Autistic Children (poac.net) based in NJ, also offers many free VB trainings. Parents in PA have recently formed a Chapter of POAC in PA (poacofpa.net) and also offer free trainings. Finally, the website verbalbehaviornetwork.com is a wonderful resource for both parents and professionals.
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What is ABA?
ABA stands for Applied Behavior Analysis and is the science of studying behavior and applying data supported techniques to increase and/or decrease behaviors that are meaningful to the client and client’s social environment.
Basic Principles of ABA
These principles underlie all we do:

Defines behavior in objective and measurable
terms.

Examines the relationship between behavior (what a person does) and its controlling variables (what happens in the environment).

Analyzes socially significant behavior in need of improvement.**

Studies behavior through a three-term contingency (What happens before the behavior? What does the behavior look like? and What happens immediately following the behavior? See A-B-C in the glossary of this manual). The three-term contingency is then used to plan how to teach.
** Analyzes = Examine, data collection, and data based decisions.
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What is
Verbal Behavior
?

Verbal Behavior is behavior that is mediated by the behavior of another person. This means it is what we do in most of our interactions with other people. Verbal behavior is communication.

Verbal behavior focuses attention on the functional
analysis of language: looking at the conditions
under which a person will use language.

Verbal behavior can include speaking, using gestures, use of sign language, use of picture systems, and the use of various augmentative communication devices.
Verbal Behavior is best understood by learning
the verbal operants. The verbal operants are like building blocks; they are a way of classifying what is said by why it is said.
Mand = request (you say it because you want it)
Tact = label (you say it because you see it, or hear it, or smell it, etc.)
Intraverbal = conversation, answering a question, responding when someone else talks (you say it because someone else asked you a question, or made a comment)
Echoic = repeating what someone else says (you say it because someone else said it)
Receptive = following directions (you do what someone else asks you to)
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In verbal behavior programs we teach all of the “meanings.” One word, such as "cookie," may have multiple meanings based upon its function. The same word may have to be taught as a mand, as a tact, as an interverbal, as an echoic, or responded to receptively.
This is what it means to “teach all of the meanings” of a word like “cookie”:
Verbal Operant
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Mand
Motivative Operation (MO, want or desire for cookie)
Verbal behavior (says “cookie,” signs cookie or exchanges a picture of cookie)
Direct reinforcement (gets a cookie)
Tact
Sensory stimuli (sees a cookie, smells cookies, tastes a cookie, hears someone eating a cookie, touches a cookie)
Verbal behavior (says “cookie”; may also sign cookie or exchange a picture of a cookie)
Non-specific reinforcement
(example: praise; “you’re right!” “great job!” high five, pat on back, etc.)
Intraverbal Without point to point correspondence
Verbal stimulus (example:
“What do you like to eat?”)
Verbal behavior (says “cookies,” signs cookie,
or exchanges a picture
of a cookie)
Non-specific reinforcement
(example: praise; “you’re right!” “great job!” high five, pat on back, etc.)
Echoic With point to point correspondence
Verbal stimulus (someone
says “cookie”)
Verbal behavior (says “cookie”)
Non-specific reinforcement
(example: praise; “you’re right!” “great job!” high five, pat on back, etc.)
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Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 11:00 pm

How do we implement
Verbal Behavior
in
the Classroom?

A child enters a Verbal Behavior program with language and social concerns (can’t talk or has delayed speech, has trouble interacting, may be quite repetitive).

First we teach the child to cooperate and enjoy being with us. Instead of forcing the child to be with us, we associate ourselves with their favorite items or activities and they will, hopefully,
approach us. In doing this, we are pairing ourselves with reinforcement.
• Then we teach the child how to:
~ Ask for what they want (MAND)
~ Say what things are (TACT)
~ Answer questions (INTRAVERBAL)
~ Follow directions (RECEPTIVE)
~ Imitate (Vocal – ECHOIC) can be motor imitation too
~ Use toys or other objects appropriately

Before we start teaching the children, we need to assess their skills. This is done by using the Basic Language Assessment Form (BLAF) and the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS). The BLAF is a quick assessment that can be done before the staff starts the more lengthy ABLLS assessment. A copy of the BLAF is included later in this manual.

In addition to assessment, the verbal behavior
consultants train the teachers and classroom staff in program development, and on-site guided practice. This may include showing or modeling how to implement certain programs or handle behavior problems, data based decision making, behavior management, and research supported teaching techniques.
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What is the
BLAF
?
The BLAF stands for Behavior Language Assessment Form.

It has 12 sections that cover early language and related areas (pp 15-46 Teaching Language to Children Manual).

It helps to determine where to start a language
intervention program.

It is a quick assessment that can help guide initial programming and give an overall view of the student’s skills.

A typical 3-4 year old child would have the BLAF skills completed.
Why use the BLAF?

It is useful with children with limited verbal behavior.

It is a brief assessment, much less time consuming
than administering the complete ABLLS.

It helps identify which operants to teach first, and perhaps, which response form to use (vocal, signs, picture selection).

It is a good place to start planning.

It is a simplified version of the ABLLS.

It is a screening tool.

It has a brief administration time.

Teaching staff can begin to develop curricula
programs based on the BLAF while completing
the ABLLS. Please see APPENDIX 1 & 2.
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What is the
ABLLS
?
The ABLLS stands for Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills, written by James Partington, Ph.D and Mark Sundberg, Ph.D.
The ABLLS is broken into sections that include:
Basic Language and pre-language Learner Skills Assessment
A. Cooperation and
Reinforcer Effectiveness
B. Visual Performance
C. Receptive Language
D. Imitation
E. Vocal Imitation
F. Requests
G. Labeling
H. Intraverbals
I. Spontaneous Vocalizations
J. Syntax and Grammar
K. Play and Leisure
L. Social Interaction
M. Group Instruction
N. Follow Classroom Routines
P. Generalized Responding
Academic Skills Assessment
Q. Reading Skills
R. Math Skills
S. Writing Skills
T. Spelling
Self-Help Skills Assessment
U. Dressing Skills
V. Eating Skills
W. Grooming
X. Toileting Skills
Motor Skills Assessment
Y. Gross Motor Skills
Z. Fine Motor Skills
The first nine sections of the ABLLS (Sections A to I) are those that are most important for teaching communication skills. Most Verbal Behavior programming
comes from sections A to I. The skill items listed on the ABLLS are used to guide what is taught to children on a daily basis. The order of skills helps teachers to know and plan for skills that will be taught next.
16
Impor
tant Terms
to Know
What is Positive Reinforcement?
Positive Reinforcement – something is added or gained that increases the probability of the behavior occurring again.
Reinforcement is a change in the environment following a behavior that increases the future probability of that behavior occurring under similar
circumstances.
Reinforcement ALWAYS INCREASES the probability
of behavior (it doesn’t matter if the reinforcement
is positive or negative).
Remember that reinforcement can consist of almost any event; do not think of reinforcement as being just something that is given to the child. Any event that follows a behavior and makes that behavior more likely to occur in the future is reinforcement.
What does it mean to pair with
reinforcers?
We offer free reinforcers to the child before working on any instructional demands. Providing playful interactions, bits of fruit, chips, candy, tickles, hugs, and spins may be examples of free reinforcers. “Free” simply means that you deliver the reinforcer without demanding anything of the child.
When pairing is done properly, kids want to be around us! They don’t mind working with us when the time comes, because a history of positive
reinforcement has been established. The adults are seen as “givers,” a source of good things.
The result of pairing should be approach behavior!
What is approach behavior?
Approach behavior simply means having the child want to come to be with you and stay with you. Any movement of the child toward you is approach behavior.
“We want the children to run toward us, not away from us.”
– Jim Partington
“Our goal is to be a human chocolate chip cookie!”
-Siri Ming
If we’re having fun, the students will be having
fun and will want to be with us. It is easier to teach someone who wants to be with us rather then someone who wants to run away from us.
Though no demands are placed at first, reinforcers
are delivered for approach behavior…the student has to look at us, or walk by us, or allow us to walk by him/her to get the reinforcer. We do not chase…that would reinforce “walking away” behaviors!
When we start assessing and working with the students we need to assess their reinforcers. Families and teachers will be asked to fill out a Reinforcer Assessment in the beginning of the year. Please see APPENDIX 3.
17
Behavior Reduction
What are the steps we follow when there is a student exhibiting problem
behavior in the classroom?

We try to PREVENT the behavior from occurring.

Prevention starts with effective instruction and careful use of motivation strategies.

Busy kids, who are having fun and learning, generally do not present behavior problems.
If the problem behavior continues we need to look at the functions of behavior.
In order to do this we:

Define the behavior problem

Collect baseline data: (frequency data)

Graph frequency data

Begin completing a descriptive analysis
including:
~ Interview
~ Systematic observation (ABC data collection,
behavior card)
~ Rating scale: FAST (Functional Assessment Screening Tool) or FBAI (Functional Behavioral Assessment Inventory)
Once we determine a hypothesis for why the behavior is occurring (what type of reinforcement the child is getting from the behavior) we can determine an appropriate intervention.
Some ways that behavior problems may be addressed through behavior analysis include:

Manipulating antecedents (changes things in the environment).

Reinforcing an appropriate behavior that does the same thing as the inappropriate behavior; in other words, teaching the child to communicate appropriately rather than having a tantrum.

Reducing the child’s motivation to engage in problem behavior by providing learning activities that result in good things happening.

Making sure the problem behavior does not result in things getting better for the child (this is called extinction and is explained below).
Interventions to help reduce problem behaviors
are chosen on an individual basis. As a parent
or guardian, you may be asked by your school district or intermediate unit to be part of this process.
As noted above, some ways of reducing problem
behavior involve extinction: not providing the reinforcement that maintains the behavior. Extinction procedures may lead to what is called an “extinction burst” in which behaviors temporarily
increase. After an extinction burst the behaviors usually decrease dramatically. Parents need to understand that a temporary increase of behaviors is sometimes necessary to decrease the behavior. For example, if you are talking to a friend and ask “What time is it?” and your friend doesn’t answer (putting you on extinction) what do you normally do? You say it louder! This is an extinction burst. If your friend continued to ignore you, you would eventually stop. Like all
18
well-designed and implemented behavior programs,
extinction programs should include data showing how frequently the problem behavior occurs while the program is implemented.
Some behavior reduction procedures need to be written into the IEP. Your teacher will keep you up to date on any behavior reduction plans. It is the school’s responsibility to develop behavior
plans. The VB consultants can provide information
on how best to select positive and effective
ways of managing behavior.
19
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Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 11:02 pm

Appendix 1 - BLAF
The Behavioral Language Assessment Form (BLAF)
For the following questions, indicate the level of performance that best describes the learner’s typical
level of performance.
1. COOPERATION WITH ADULTS _____ (enter score)
How easy is it to work with the child?
1.
Always uncooperative, avoids work,
engages in negative behavior
2.
Will do only one brief and easy response for a powerful behavior
3.
Will give 5 responses without disruptive behavior
4.
Will work for 5 minutes without disruptive behavior
5.
Works well for 10 minutes at a table without
disruptive behavior
2. REQUESTS (Mands) ______
How does the learner make his needs and wants known?
1.
Cannot ask for reinforcers; or engages in negative behavior
2.
Pulls people, points, or stands by reinforcing
items
3.
Uses 1-5 words, signs, or pictures to ask for reinforcers
4.
Uses 5-10 words, signs or pictures to ask for reinforcers
5.
Frequently requests using 10 or more
words, signs, or pictures
3. MOTOR IMITATION ______
Does the learner copy actions?
1.
Cannot imitate anybody’s motor movements
2.
Imitates a few gross motor movements modeled by others
3.
Imitates several gross motor movements on request
4.
Imitates several fine and gross motor movements
on request
5.
Easily imitates any fine or gross movements, often spontaneously
4. VOCAL PLAY ______
Does the learner spontaneously say sounds and words?
1.
Does not make any sounds (mute)
2.
Makes a few speech sounds at a low rate
21
3.
Vocalizes many speech sounds with varied intonations
4.
Vocalizes frequently with varied intonation and says a few words
5.
Vocalizes frequently and says many clearly understandable words
5. VOCAL IMITATION (Echoic) ______
Will the learner repeat sounds or words?
1.
Does not make any sounds (mute)
2.
Makes a few speech sounds at a low rate
3.
Vocalizes many speech sounds with varied intonations
4.
Vocalizes frequently with varied intonation and says a few words
5.
Vocalizes frequently and says many clearly understandable words
6. MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE ______
Will the learner match objects, pictures, and designs to presented samples?
1.
Cannot match any objects or pictures to a sample
2.
Can match 1 or 2 objects or pictures to a sample
3.
Can match 5-10 objects or pictures to a sample
4.
Can match 5-10 colors, shapes, or designs to a sample
5.
Can match most items and match 2 to 5 block designs
7. RECEPTIVE ______
Does the learner understand any words or follow directions?
1.
Cannot understand any words
2.
Will follow a few instructions related to daily routines
3.
Will follow a few instructions to do actions or touch items
4.
Can follow many instructions and point to at least 25 items
5.
Can point to at least 100 items, actions, persons,
adjectives
8. LABELING (Tacts) ______
Does the learner label or verbally identify any items or actions?
1.
Cannot identify any items or actions
2.
Identifies only 1 to 5 items or actions
3.
Identifies 6 to 15 items or actions
4.
Identifies 16 – 50 items or actions
5.
Identifies over 100 items or actions and emits short sentences
9. RECEPTIVE BY FUNCTION, FEATURE, AND CLASS ______
Does the learner identify items when given information
about those items?
1.
Cannot identify items based on information about them
2.
Will identify a few items given synonyms or common functions
3.
Will identify 10 items given 1 of 3 functions or features
4.
Will identify 25 items given 4 functions, features,
or classes
5.
Will identify 100 items given 5 functions, features, or classes
10. CONVERSATIONAL SKILLS (Intraverbals) ______
Can the learner fill-in missing words or answer questions?
1.
Cannot fill-in missing words or parts of songs
2.
Can fill-in a few missing words or provide animal sounds
3.
Can fill-in 10 non-reinforcing phrases or answer at least 10 simple questions
22
4.
Can fill-in 20 phrases or can answer 20 questions with variation
5.
Can answer at least 30 questions with variation
11. LETTERS AND NUMBERS ______
Does the learner know any letters, numbers, or written words?
1.
Cannot identify any letters, numbers, or written words
2.
Can identify at least 3 letters or numbers
3.
Can identify at least 15 letters or number
4.
Can read at least 5 words and identify 5 numbers
5.
Can read at least 25 words and identify 10 numbers
12. Does the learner initiate and sustain interactions
with others?
1.
Does not initiate interactions with others
2.
Physically approaches others to initiate an interaction
3.
Readily asks adults for reinforcers
4.
Verbally interacts with peers and prompts
5.
Regularly initiates and sustains verbal interactions
with peers.
23
Appendix 2 - ABLLS
24
APPENDIX 3
Reinforcement Assessment Form
Child’s Name: ________________________________________________________ Date:______________ Completed by: _______________________________________________________
Prior to beginning intensive teaching it is important to identify ALL of your child’s motivators or reinforcers.
Many children have very specific reinforcers and some like to use them only in a particular way. Please provide as much detail as possible about your child’s reinforcers. This information will help expedite the transition to intensive teaching.
Using a scale of 1-5 (1 being the most favorable) please indicate your child’s preferences below:
1.
What are your child’s favorite indoor activities?
Puzzles ____
Games ____
Books ____
Sensory toys ____
Musical instruments ____
Computer games ______
Action figures ____
Painting ____
Bowling ____
Play dough ____
Other: _____
Notes:
2.
What are your child’s outdoor playtime activities?
Bicycle ____ Swing set ____ Trampoline ____ Theme parks ____ Swimming ____ Slide ____ Roller-skating ____
3. What are your child’s favorite video preferences?
Disney movies ____ Animated movies ____ Cartoons ____
Real-life animal videos____
List some of your child’s favorite videos:
4. What are your child’s favorite snacks?
Candy ____ Fruit ____ Cookies ____
Crackers ____ Chips ____ Pretzels ____
Ice cream ____ Other: ______
List your child’s favorite brand names:
25
5. What are your child’s favorite beverages?
Soda ____ Juice ____ Water ____
Milk ____
List your child’s favorite flavors and brand names:
6.
What are your child’s favorite books?
Pop-up books ____
Picture books ____
Books with sound cards ____
Sensory books ____
Puzzle book ____
Coloring books ____
Sticker books ____
Notes:
7.
What are your child’s preferences for pets?
Cats ___ Dogs ____ Hamsters ____ Fish ____ Gerbils ____ Other ____ Notes:
8. What is your child’s special strength?
Art ____ Math ____ Music ____
Spatial ____ Reading ____ Computer ____
Other ____
Notes:
9. What activity does your child prefer when using the computer?
CD Rom games ____ Internet Sites ____ List your child’s CD Rom games:
List your child’s favorite internet sites:
10. What are your child’s favorite songs?
Song 1. ______________________________________________ Song 2. ______________________________________________ Song 3. ______________________________________________ Song 4. ______________________________________________ Song 5. ______________________________________________
Developed by Allie McVeigh and the Verbal Behavior Network
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bi
 
Posts: 161
Joined: Tue Nov 01, 2005 12:04 pm

mater vb4

Postby bi » Thu Nov 27, 2008 11:04 pm

Glossary of Terms
ABA ~ An acronym that is used to refer to the field of APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS, the application of the science
of learning to socially significant human behavior.
A-B-C ~ A description of a RESPONSE in terms of the Antecedent (A), Behavior (B), and Consequence (C).
Antecedent ~ The stimulus that immediately comes
before the behavior
Behavior ~ A description of the response in terms of
its topography (what the behavior looks like)
Consequence ~ The immediate outcome of the behavior
ABLLS ~ Acronym for the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills, a language assessment tool in common usage within Applied Behavior Analytic programs. Created by Dr. James W. Partington and Dr. Mark L. Sundberg.
Acquisition ~ The time during which an individual is learning a new behavior. Data collected on the rate (speed) and accuracy of the skill being acquired informs the interventionist
working with an individual as to whether the teaching procedures being used need to be adjusted.
Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ~ Includes many different behaviors involved in taking care of one’s self (e.g. toilet usage, washing, dressing, eating). These behaviors are also referred to as self-help skills.
Activity Schedule ~ Individuals are taught to follow a series of written or pictorial cues, engaging in the behavior chain represented.
Backward chaining ~ A specific method of instruction where one attempts to teach a task by teaching the last step first and working through a task analysis in reverse. EX: Putting together a new puzzle. The instructor would prompt the student to put in all of the pieces in the puzzles.
They would fade the prompt on the last piece while continuing to prompt the student through the rest of the puzzle. Once the student puts the last piece in independently
(no prompts), the instructor can begin to fade prompts on second to last piece.
Baseline ~ The period of observation during which we gather data relevant to intervention.
Behavior ~ This term refers to some action made by an individual. Use the dead man’s (or person’s) test.
Behavior chain ~ Multiple steps that make up a given behavior or activity.
Behavior Treatment Plan ~ A written description outlining
how relevant individuals in a client’s environment should respond if a given target behavior occurs, or if a given target behavior does not occur.
Behaviorism ~ The philosophy of the science of behavior.
It takes several forms, but always emphasizes that behavior is the proper subject matter of psychology and should be studied using an objective scientific, experimental
methodology.
Board Certified Behavior Analyst ~ This is a person who has satisfied all the requirements to acquire the “B.C.B.A.” and can, therefore, call himself/herself a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Requirements include completing a prerequisite
number of hours of university-level course work in the science of behavior, completing a period of internship
under the supervision of a Board Certified Behavior Analyst, and passing the required written examination. To maintain certification once it is achieved, there are various continuing education requirements. There are currently two levels of certification: the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (B.C.B.A.) and the Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst (B.C.A.B.A.). The exact requirements and most current
information regarding how to become or locate a Board Certified Behavior Analyst are available through the
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Behavior Analyst Certification Board web site, at www.BACB.com.
Case Study ~ A description of the background of a particular
individual usually used to assist in treatment decisions.
Chaining ~ A teaching procedure wherein one attempts to link various simple, individual responses together to make one, longer complex behavior. One talks of “chaining” the individual responses that make up “setting a table,” for example.
Conditioned Reinforcer ~ A reinforcer that was previously
neutral, but has become a reinforcer. Money becomes a conditioned reinforcer by being paired with the items it purchases. Interventionists may become conditioned reinforcers
for their student’s behavior, through being paired with other reinforcers (e.g. praise, tokens, favored activities).
Consequence ~ The specific immediate result of a given behavior. The consequence may or may not have behavior-altering properties.
Data ~ Pieces of information gathered to guide the decision-
making progress. ABA relies upon data-based decision
making. Teaching and behavior management programs
are based upon information that is systematically gathered during the teaching/working process.
Data-Based Decision Making ~ A requirement of ABA, this refers to the fact that teaching and behavior management
decisions are based upon information that is systematically
gathered during the teaching/working process.
Dead Man’s (Person’s) Test ~ A guiding principle in the creation of behavior goals and behavior treatment plans. It basically states that anything a dead person can do is not behavior.
Deprivation ~ To increase the potency of a reinforcer by not delivering it to the individual for a time. For example: to make access to a favorite video game particularly reinforcing,
one might limit access to the game. When a particular
goal is met (cleaning up their room), they can have access to their reinforcer. If an individual has restricted access to a particular reinforcer, it is unlikely to be particularly
potent when offered as a reinforcer. Contrast with
satiation.
Direct Instruction ~ A form of teaching that is heavily based upon behavioral principles. Students are taught in groups that are made up of students at roughly the same academic level, there is a scripted and fast-paced presentation
of materials, students respond as a group, as well as individually, and there is a very high degree of student-instructor interaction with error correction and positive reinforcement for correct responding. There is an emphasis
on very well designed and researched modules that students
must master before moving on to the next level (see work by Engleman and Carnine).
Discrete Trial Teaching ~ Discrete trial teaching is the three-term contingency (A-B-C) relationship as applied to teaching new skills. It is necessary because of the difficulties
children with disabilities have in learning information from the everyday environment. Each “trial” is a separate attempt to teach a new behavior or reinforce a previously learned behavior.
* Echoic ~ One of Skinner’s Verbal Operants, the repeating of previously heard utterances.
Edible Reinforcers ~ Food items that may be used as reinforcers
for some persons. One common myth surrounding ABA is that edibles are the predominant reinforcers used in all treatment procedures with children. In actuality, when edibles are used, they are always paired with other more natural reinforcers such as verbal praise, attention, and tokens, and are faded as the student acquires other reinforcers.
Errorless Learning ~ This refers to a form of Discrete Trial Teaching. In errorless learning, prompting and prompt fading are utilized to reduce and or eliminate the likelihood of learner errors. If possible, the child is prevented
from making the incorrect response in the first place through careful prompting. This increases the probability that the child will have more opportunities to make a correct
response and receive reinforcement.
Error Correction ~ Correction procedure that is used in the event that the learner respond incorrectly, or is nonresponsive.
In error correction, the discriminative stimulus
is repeated, followed by a zero second prompt for the child to respond correctly. Error correction is always followed
by a transfer trial.
Extinction ~ To cease reinforcing a previously reinforced behavior to decrease the behavior’s frequency.
Extinction Burst ~ A reliable phenomenon, this refers to the tendency for behavior “to get worse before it gets better”
when a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced. During the burst, the behavior will temporarily increase in frequency, magnitude, and variability.
Fading ~ This term refers to gradually removing any extra prompts one has introduced into a teaching situation.
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Fluency ~ This general term refers to the ability of an individual
to complete a given number of responses accurately
within a given period of time.
Frequency ~ Refers to the sheer number of target responses
counted. For example, “the student made seven initiations
to his peers.”
Forward Chaining ~ A type of chaining procedure in which the first step in a task analysis is taught first, then the second step, then the third step, through to the final step (the full behavior chain being emitted).
Functional Analysis ~ One of the central processes of ABA, functional analysis involves the steps taken to answer the central question of “Why is he doing that?”
Generalization ~ Speaking broadly, generalization refers to variation in either response or setting. We strive to generalize
across time, setting, people, and instructional materials.
Graphing ~ The representation of behavioral data on a grid. Graphs make for easy summarization of trends and level in behavior. They are also used to assess progress in learning and to make teaching/treatment decisions.
Imitation ~ To copy observed actions or sounds. Most often discussed in ABA programming in terms of motor
(a.k.a. nonverbal) imitation of actions, or verbal (a.k.a. vocal) imitation of speech sounds.
Incidental Teaching ~ Generally speaking, the incidental teaching refers to teaching that “takes advantage” of naturally
occurring opportunities to teach, often with student-initiated activities.
Inclusion ~ Inclusion is a term describing the education of students with disabilities, including those with the most cognitive impairments, in general classroom settings. It implies more than mere physical proximity between students
with and without disabilities. Indeed, the term means full participation and equality as part of a group, leading to a sense of belonging within the classroom and community at large. It means that a student is truly a member of, not merely a visitor to, the class or group. However, inclusion does not necessarily mean that a student never leaves the class or the group of students of which he or she is a part.
* Intraverbal ~ One of Skinner’s Verbal Operants, a verbal response that is controlled by the verbal responses of others.
A program where a student “fills in” a missing word be an example of an intraverbal, “Twinkle, twinkle, little _____.” Another example would be if the teacher asked the student, "How old are you?," and the child responded vocally or with sign or a picture, “five.”
* Mand ~ One of Skinner’s Verbal Operants, it means to request. One mands, for example, when one requests reinforcers.
Matching to Sample ~ Refers to a teaching procedure in
which some stimulus is presented (the sample) and a child
must select the correct matching object from a set of comparison
selections.
Most-to-least prompting ~ This term refers to a prompting
and prompt fading strategy where one begins
prompting at a level guaranteed to get the response to
occur. You would fade the intensity of the prompt over
time to avoid prompt dependency.
Motivational Operation ~ Sometimes abbreviated as MO,
this term refers to an alteration on the environment that
affects the power of other stimuli to serve as reinforcers
and antecedent stimuli.
Natural Environment Teaching ~ Sometimes abbreviated
as NET, this term refers to a teaching approach where the
child’s current activities and interests determine teaching
strategies.
Negative Reinforcement ~ Describes a relationship
between events in which the rate of a behavior’s occurrence
increases when some (usually aversive or unpleasant)
environmental condition is removed or reduced in intensity.
It leads to an increase in the future probability of a given
behavior. For example, if a student tantrums after the
teacher asked him/her to perform a task, and the teacher
withdraws the request as a result of the tantrum. In such a
case, the teacher has accidentally negatively reinforced
the tantrum and unwittingly made it more likely to happen
in the future.
Pairing ~ Pairing is the process by which you establish
yourself as a reinforcer, in order to build a positive relationship
and rapport with your student (for parents, your
child). It involves the association of a “neutral stimulus”
(you, other instructors) with an existing reinforcer, and
results in the “neutral stimulus” becoming reinforcing. It is
also the process by which you can shape the social skills of
interaction and engagement.
There are two primary aspects of pairing:
-Presenting yourself and your words in association with the
delivery of reinforcers.
-Reinforcing interaction and engagement behavior at whatever
level is appropriate for the child.
Positive Reinforcement ~ A stimulus is presented following
a given target behavior, this leads to an increase in the
future probability of that target behavior. As with other con29
sequences, it is important to remember that a stimulus is only a positive reinforcer if, when presented, leads to an increase in the future probability of the behavior.
Precision Teaching ~ Practice plus fluency. Precision teaching does not replace what you teach. It provides an efficient and effective way to practice skills and monitor progress. The outcome of precision teaching is fluency.
Primary reinforcer ~ A reinforcer that is effective without any prior learning (i.e. is in-born).
Probe (cold) ~ Data that is collected for a student’s first response.
Prompt ~ Makes the desired behavior more likely. Think of prompts as hints. Whenever you use a prompt, you should be thinking about how to fade it out. This will allow the student to respond to cues in the environment on their own. In instruction, the prompt occurs as part of the antecedent condition (in the three term contingency ABC).
Rate ~ A measure of frequency across a specific period of time. For example, a child emits seven initiations per hour.
Receptive Programs ~ Teaching programs that call on the student to follow an instruction. This is a non-vocal response. For example: The student is shown four colors and asked to touch the one that is red. Another example, the teacher asks the student to go to the door to line up and the student follows the instruction.
Redirection ~ One individual attempts to interrupt a student
engaging in a behavior (often an inappropriate behavior)
and attempts to engage him/her in an alternate (generally
more appropriate) behavior.
Reinforcer ~ A consequence that increases the future probability of the behavior that immediately preceded it.
Reinforcer Assessment ~ This is a procedure to identify the stimuli and activities that a student finds reinforcing. Remember: you may think something is a reinforcer but if it does not lead to an increase in the future probability of that target behavior, it is not a reinforcer for the child.
RFFC ~ Receptive categorization according to the Function,
Feature, or Class of an object. Examples:
Function: “What do you eat with?” Child hands you a
spoon.
Feature: “Which one bounces?” Child touches the picture
of a ball.
Class: “Which one is a toy?” Child gives you the yoyo
on the table.
Sd ~ This is the symbolic notation for Discriminative
Stimulus. This is a stimulus that signals that a given behavior
will be reinforced.
Sr+ ~ The symbolic notation for positive reinforcement.
Satiation ~ A reinforcer loses its effectiveness through
overuse.
Schedule of Reinforcement ~ The ratio of responses to
reinforcers.
Secondary Reinforcer ~ A consequence that was previously
neutral, but has become a reinforcer through pairing
with a previously established reinforcer.
Shaping ~ Process used to create new behavior by differentially
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired
behavior (the target response).
Social reinforcers ~ Reinforcers that consist of interactions
with other individuals. (high five, thumbs up, wink).
* Tact ~ One of Skinner’s Verbal Operants, meaning to “label.” This might entail labeling specific objects or occurrences.
In programming, the final goal is generally spontaneous
tacting, where the individual tacts without prompting (e.g., a child makes an initiation by describing an object to another child as a means of sharing experiences).
Target Behavior ~ A response that we are making the object of analysis (e.g., to increase or decrease the probability
of a given behavior).
Task Analysis ~ Used most often in discussions of chaining,
this is a written list of all steps that must be accomplished
to perform a particular behavior. Depending on the individual, one skill could take 10 steps or 100 steps.
Timeout from Positive Reinforcement ~ Often called “time out” for short, this term refers to a collection of very often misused techniques. The general idea of time out is that a given reinforcer is removed for a short period of time, contingent upon some inappropriate behavior being emitted by an individual. While this can take the form of an individual having to go to a different setting (e.g., the common
“time out chair”), time out need not take this form, and there are good reasons to avoid this use (e.g., accidentally
reinforcing with attention, or accidentally reinforcing avoidance behavior). Time out can be accomplished within the given setting (e.g., a T.V. set is turned off for 10 seconds
following inappropriate hand flapping while watching).
Topography ~ What a behavior looks like. A description of the form of the behavior.
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Transfer Trial ~ An unprompted trial that follows a prompted trial. To get a transfer trial, prompts are faded to lead to an independent response. A transfer trial should follow
every prompted trial.
Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcment ~ An intermittent
schedule of reinforcement where reinforcement becomes available after an uncertain number of responses. The schedule is named for the average number of responses
needed for reinforcement (for example, VR 10 requires an average of 10 responses for reinforcement). This is among the most powerful schedules of reinforcement for encouraging rapid responding and providing resistance to extinction.
References
Verbal Behavior ~ A book written by B.F. Skinner that describes a behavioral approach to language. It emphasizes the idea that communication is a behavior that follows the same laws and principles as other forms of behavior.
Visual Prompt ~ A cue that is meant to be seen and that has behavior-altering effects. This may take the form, for example, of a culturally accepted symbol such as a “stop sign,” or may take the form of something designed for an individual teaching program. For example, holding up a picture of a cat when asked “What says meow?”
* These are the Verbal Operants
bi
 
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